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Table 2 Characteristics of the studies

From: Educational standards for training paramedics in ultrasound: a scoping review

Author, year
Participants and Number Operators & experience with US Aim Clinical Conditions Test Population Methods
Baldaranov et al. 2015 [20]
n = 6 Paramedics US naive To design and evaluate a dedicated stroke educational program for paramedics including transcranial POCUS. Stroke Real patients Prospective observational study
Booth et al. 2015 UK [14] n = 9 Paramedics US naive Assess whether paramedics can be trained to perform & interpret echo Cardiac arrest Healthy models Prospective observational pilot study
Brooke et al. 2010 UK [37] n = 10. Paramedics Advanced paramedics, US naive Determine if advanced paramedics can be trained to acquire and interpret quality ultrasound images Pneumothorax Pre-recorded video clips Prospective observational cohort study
Cappa et al. 2015 Arizona [28] Not reported ED nurses and paramedics Determine if a program to train nurses and paramedics to place USGIV’s in the ED decreases the use of central lines. Peripheral Intravenous access Not reported Combined retrospective and prospective observational study
Chin et al. 2013
USA [16]
n = 20 Firefighter paramedics US naive Determine if EMTs can be trained using Pre-hospital Assessment with US for Emergencies (PAUSE) protocol Pneumothorax, pericardial effusion & cardiac standstill Healthy models Prospective educational intervention study
Heegaard et al. 2004 USA [7] n = 10. Flight nurses & paramedics >5 years clinical experience Develop a training program for air medical clinicians using focused POCUS examinations and assess competencies 1 year later. FAST in medical & trauma cases Real patients Prospective observational study
Heiner & McArthur 2010 USA [17] n = 20. EMTs US naive Study ability of EMTs to be trained to recognize presence of fractures using portable POCUS Long bone fractures Simulation model on turkey leg bone Prospective observational study
Knapp et al. 2012 USA [22] n = 90 Paramedics 70 EMT-Ps and 20 EMT-Is Paramedic and Intermediate EMT providers. US naïve. Determine whether EMS providers at the EMT-intermediate and EMT Paramedic levels can acquire knowledge and skill to operate portable POCUS and achieve high level of accuracy performing cardiac and FAST exams. Cardiac and FAST Live standardised patients Prospective Cohort Educational Study
Lahham et al. 2015 USA [21] n = 4 Paramedics US naïve Determine whether paramedics are capable of obtaining cardiac POCUS images and can use these for adequate clinical decision making, as well as identify cardiac activity in cardiac arrest patients. Cardiac evaluation Real patients Prospective educational intervention study
Lema et al. 2014 New York [26] n = 31 paramedics n = 2 residents Naïve US-guided intubation experience Assess whether paramedics and residents could dynamically identify correct ETT placement in a cadaver model using US. Correct endotracheal tube placement Cadaver models Prospective observational study
Lyon et al. 2012 USA [23] n = 8 (4 critical care flight paramedics & 4 critical care nurses) Two with previous limited US exposure, none with experience with clinical US Determine if pre-hospital critical care providers can be trained to determine presence/absence of the sliding lung sign on POCUS. Pneumothorax Cadaver models Blinded RCT
Press et al. 2013 USA [24] n = 33 Helicopter paramedics and flight nurses Majority had no US experience. Effectiveness of an EFAST training program FAST Both simulated patients (with pathology) and real patients Prospective observational cohort study
Quick et al. 2016
USA [8]
n = 26 flight crew members (flight nurses and paramedics) In HEMS helicopter with flight crew. US training prior to study commencing. To evaluate the ability of non-physician aeromedical providers to identify pneumothorax in-flight. Pneumothorax Initial training: Healthy models and swine animal models. Study: Real patients Prospective observational study
Roline et al. 2013 USA [27] Flight Crew
n = not reported
In HEMS helicopter with flight crew Evaluate feasibility of bedside thoracic US in helicopter environment Pneumothorax Healthy model in training. Real non-pregnant patients transported by HEMS Prospective pilot study
Unleur et al. 2011 Turkey [18] n = 4. Paramedics Senior paramedics working in ED triage. US naive Accuracy of paramedic performed FAST in ED after trauma FAST Real patients Prospective observational study
Walcher et al. 2010 Germany n = 9. 5 ED doctors & 4 paramedics (403 participants total trained from 2003 to 06) US naive. US training day then performed on scene. Evaluate effectiveness of new training course for prehospital FAST (P-FAST) FAST in trauma patients Healthy models, models with positive FAST (ascites or peritoneal dialysis), and real patients Prospective, multi-centre study
West et al. 2014 USA [19] n = 9 paramedics (10 enrolled but one pulled out on examination day) Paramedics with field experience but US naïve Evaluate the accuracy andtime taken to perform multiple FAST exams in a simulated MCI setting. FAST in trauma patients during MCI Healthy models and models with positive FAST (peritoneal dialysis patients) Single-blinded RCT
Vitto et al. 2015
USA [25]
n = 15 flight nurses and paramedics . US naïve Evaluate the ability of flight nurses and paramedics to learn and retain U/S for use during flight and ground transport. Not Reported Healthy models and US simulations using US simulator Prospective observational cohort study